Honorární konzul Ruské federace
Sokolská 21, 702 00 Ostrava
Tel: 596 112 261
Fax 596 112 262
Russia, also known as the Russian Federation, is a country in northern Eurasia. Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area (more than 6.6 million square miles). Russia shares its borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and North Korea. Russia is also the ninth most populous nation in the world with more than 142 million inhabitants. The nation encompasses the entire northern Asia and 40% of the European continent. It spans 11 time zones and enjoys a varied climate. While European and Asian Russia enjoy a humid continental and subarctic climate, the Black Sea area near Sochi enjoys a subtropical climate.
Moscow, the capital of Russsia, is located at 55 45 N and 37 37 E of the Greenwich meridian in the middle of the East European Plain. The area lies at a height of 30-35 meters above the Moskva river and about 150 meters above sea level. More than 10 million people are living in Moscow. Among them there are representatives of about one hundred nations and ethnic groups. Moscow consists of 10 administrative regions, which are subdivided into 128 districts.
The Russian economy has undergone massive changes since the fall of the Soviet Empire, transitioning from a state controlled, socialist structure to a more market based, and globally integrated economy. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industries, and some energy and defense related sectors. Russia’s heavy reliance on commodity exports made the country vulnerable to the global economic crisis of 2008.
Russia is a major producer of wheat, barley, oats, and rye. In the early 1990s Russia annually produced 46 million metric tons of wheat, 25.5 million metric tons of barley, 13.9 million metric tons of rye, and 11.5 million metric tons of oats. Other important crops in Russia include dry peas, corn, millet, buckwheat, rice, and soybeans. Various types of temperate-climate fruits, such as apples, pears, and cherries, are also grown extensively in Russia. In the far north, reindeer herding is a major occupation among the native peoples.
Russia's fishing industry is one of the largest in the world. In the early 1990s the annual catch was about 9.2 million metric tons. Marine fisheries accounted for the largest share of the catch. Of the inland catch, the saltwater Azov, Black, and Caspian seas accounted for about three-fifths of the total; freshwater lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and ponds accounted for the remainder.
Mining is a major sector of the Russian economy and provides important items for national export. Mineral resources are diverse, abundant, and generally well developed. Russia has large reserves of energy-bearing minerals, including petroleum, coal, and natural gas. For many years it extracted enough of the minerals to meet domestic demands, provide for nations in its economic sphere, and export to industrial nations of the West in return for needed hard currency.
Russia is a major exporter of iron ore, with most production occurring in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly of south central Russia. Iron ore deposits near Magnitogorsk in the Ural Mountains have been largely depleted. Russia is also a notable exporter of copper (168,000 metric tons in 1990) and nickel (127,000 metric tons in 1990). Copper and nickel ores are mined primarily in the Urals, although sizable deposits of nickel are also located in the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk. The country is one of the world's leading producers of gold, which is mined in the Urals, western Siberia, and eastern Siberia in the valley of the Lena River. Russia is also a major diamond producer.